Object Oriented Programming
OOP envisions software as a collection of cooperating objects rather than a collection of functions or simply a list of commands (as is the traditional view). In OOP, each object can receive messages, process data, and send messages to other objects. Each object can be viewed as an independent little machine with a distinct role or responsibility.
OOP promotes greater flexibility and maintainability in programming, and is widely popular in large-scale software engineering. Because OOP strongly emphasizes modularity, object-oriented code is simpler to develop and easier to understand later on. Object-oriented code promotes more direct analysis, coding, and understanding of complex situations and procedures than less modular programming methods.
Namespace A container which lets developers bundle all functionality under a unique, application-specific name. Class Defines the object’s characteristics. A class is a template definition of an object’s properties and methods. Object An instance of a class. Property An object characteristic, such as color. Method An object capability, such as walk. It is a subroutine or function associated with a class. Constructor A method called at the moment an object is instantiated. It usually has the same name as the class containing it. Inheritance A class can inherit characteristics from another class. Encapsulation A method of bundling the data and methods that use the data. Abstraction The conjunction of an object’s complex inheritance, methods, and properties must adequately reflect a reality model. Polymorphism Poly means “many” and morphism means “forms”. Different classes might define the same method or property.
Prototype-based programming is an OOP model that doesn’t use classes, but rather it first accomplishes the behavior of any class and then reuses it (equivalent to inheritance in class-based languages) by decorating (or expanding upon) existing prototype objects. (Also called classless, prototype-oriented, or instance-based programming.)
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